For centuries, China has been the most populous nation on Earth. Today, its population’s impact on the environment is evident even in the most remote areas. But with an unprecedented economic boom, these effects are taking very serious proportions. While individual use of resources remains low, the cumulative impact of steady growth in the consumption of over a billion people is tremendous. This is felt far beyond China’s borders. Logging, fishing and hunting to meet demands of the Chinese market pose threats to biodiversity as far away as Africa. It is estimated that by 2025 the nation will be the world’s leading producer of greenhouse gases.
Ill-planned hydrological engineering projects, which interrupt the natural flow of rivers, and conversion of wetlands for agriculture and unsuitable construction and infrastructure projects in the flood plain have destroyed ecosystems and driven species out of their natural homes. For example, habitat loss has left pandas clinging for survival, as large areas of natural forest have been cleared for agriculture, timber and fuelwood.
Respiratory and heart diseases related to air pollution are the leading cause of death in China. While some progress has been achieved in improving energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction, 75% of energy production is still dependent on coal. Meanwhile, demand for automobiles is growing fast. Various studies estimate pollution costs the Chinese economy about 7-10% of GDP each year.
The City Health Challenge:
Preservation of biodiversity and health are intimately related. The reconquest of biodiversity in urban areas requires integrate nature into the city. Create continuities ecological ensures the development and sustainability of plant and animal communities. This process of ecology Urban contribute, alongside other devices to ensure residents the state of well-being, physical, mental and social, according to the WHO definition of health. Issues of urban biodiversity are both the natural heritage management and the ability to implement strategy for urban ecology reclaiming areas biodiversity. The targeted actions do not necessarily aim at endangered species or natural habitats, but more often at “ordinary biodiversity” which constitutes the landscape.
- Incorporating health criteria in all phases of the district and building project: To meet the challenges of urban biodiversity criteria climatic, environmental, flora and fauna are taken into account before designing the project.
- Well integrating and accompanying the eco-district evolution in the city: The founding principle of this approach assumes that any space may be conducive to the development of areas of life. Appling the urban system, creates a global matrix corridors to maintain ecological functions of natural systems Urban ecology approach tends to preserve and enhance the existing natural heritage. It focuses on local species, non-allergenic, suitable climate and soil type. The response is then made consistent with the requirements of the local wildlife. The operation and maintenance of green spaces are of and of particular importance in refusing the use of pesticides harmful to biodiversity and health. They are accompanied by awareness of the population to facilitate understanding of the ecological functions of these spaces and the acceptability of some unusual practices (Accept the yellow grass in the summer, for example).
- Creating and monitoring well-being of residents: When the development project involves the rehabilitation of a brownfield site, it effectively contributes to cleaner environment. In addition, the optimization of green space areas, limiting ROW waterproof tend to reduce the islets of heat. They help to make the area more enjoyable and live healthier. Materials subject to positive health assessments (FDES sheets) are preferred. Measures to encourage natural light, monitor the quality of indoor air, regulate sound nuisance sources,limit the use of cleaning products contribute to health users.
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