The China proportion of renewable energy in energy consumption will significantly increase. By 2015, the annual renewable energy consumption will reach 478 million tons of standard coal equivalents (TCE); including 400 million TCE coming from commercialized renewable energy, representing more than 9.5% in overall energy mix. The electricity generation from renewable energy sources will become an important part of overall power system. During the Five-Year Plan period, the new installed renewable energy capacity will reach 160 GW, including 61 GW of hydropower (excluding pumped hydro), 70 GW of wind power, 20 GW of solar power and 7.5 GW of biomass power. The electricity generation from renewable sources would account for more than 20% of total electricity generation by 2015.
Renewable energy will significantly replace fossil energy for heating and conventional fuels. China will continue to enlarge the scales of solar heating utilization, promote the direct application of medium-low temperature geothermal energy and heat pump technology, promote biomass molding fuel and biomass cogeneration, and speed up the development of biogas. By 2015, around 100 million TCE of fossil energy will be replaced by renewable energies to satisfy heating and fuel demand.
The City Energy Challenge
Urban space in the broad sense (transportation, heating and urban systems) generates 70% of CO2 in a city. Energy consumption is an essential component in the design of a smart eco-district. Energy includes all solutions that optimize the production, storage, transmission and distribution; and reduce energy consumption, manage costs and carbon footprint
Energy identifies the patterns of energy production and urban storage, network management solutions and distributed energy resources, taking into account the context of changing grid regulations while integrating economic realities and trends.
Energy related services applies to existing infrastructure in the following ways:
- Creating low-energy consuming or negative buildings: Energy efficiency results from detailed and rigorous specification starting from building design: optimizing compact spaces, performing windows, better insulation, balcony treatment, limitation of thermal bridges, control of air tightness, energy-efficient lighting, performing heating, production of domestic hot water, limiting air conditioning needs, while keeping consumer comfort and complementing by renewable energies.
- Optimizing the use of renewable energy: Creating an eco-district that provides enough or more energy than it consumes involves identifying the best sources of renewable energy available locally. Wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal and geothermal are solutions that minimize fossil energy dependence and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Depending on the location orientation and typology, the right technical solutions can be implemented with support of the district stakeholders.
- Implementing energy management cockpits at district level: Developing and providing an energy management and control system optimizes district energy consumption. This system is a source for financial gains corresponding to the ability to be autonomous and disconnect from the gird (microgrid).
- Encouraging energy saving behaviors: Implementing an energy saving policy within an eco-district would be in vain if it were limited to the design and construction of green buildings. An eco-district will only demonstrate its effectiveness if it also able to impose the policy upon building operators and inhabitants. Electricity usage behavior has a crucial important role in achieving energy efficiency targets. Educating consumers to their energy consumption requires implementing energy management tools that facilitate feedback to adapt behaviors. The systematic Carbon Assessment approach controls all phases of an eco-project.